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реферат на тему: Business at work

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a line structure can also gain valuable management development in a project team, preparing them for promotion to higher management positions. · The involvement of specialists from different areas reduces the risk of resources being wasted on projects with no future - in non-matrix structures an idea originating in, say, the marketing department may be pursued for a long time before it comes to the attention of production which might find that it is simply not practical. Disadvantages: · The existence of a matrix structure and project teams can lead to confusion as individuals are involved in a large number of different relationships creating a complex pattern of authority and responsibility. · A line manager may resent a subordinate receiving instructions from managers based on other departments, especially if they are at a lower level of management. · This also raises questions as to who has priority over the subordinates time and what information arising out of the work of the project team should also be reported through the line authority. This can be a potential source of conflict and relations may also be strained if the subordinate suffers from divided loyalty.

Centralised structure Organisations are centralised when the majority of decisions are taken by a few people at the top of the organisation and little decision making is delegated to those further down the organisational structure. Even if many important decisions are delegated to subordinates, some aspects of the business are always likely to remain totally under central control. In general, senior managers or a centralised department takes responsibilities for: major financial issues, wages and salaries, manpower planning and personnel records, purchasing. Advantages: · Senior management have more control of the business, eg budgets. · Procedures, such as ordering and purchasing, can be standardised throughout the organisation, leading to economies of scale and lower costs. · Senior managers should be more experienced and skilful in making decisions. In theory, centralised decisions by senior people should be of better quality than decentralised decisions made by others less experienced. · In times of crisis, a business may need strong leadership by a central group of senior managers. · Communication may improve if there are fewer decision makers.

Decentralised structure Complete decentralisation would mean subordinates would have all the authority to take decisions. It is unlikely that any business operates in either of these ways. Even if authority is delegated to a subordinate, it is usual for the manager to retain responsibility. Some delegation is necessary in all firms because of the limits to the amount of work senior managers can carry out. Tasks that might be delegated include staff selection, quality control, customer relations and purchasing and stock control. A greater degree of decentralisation - over and above the minimum which is essential - has a number of advantages.

Advantages: · It empowers and motivates workers. · It reduces the stress and burdens of senior management. It also frees time for managers to concentrate on more important tasks. · It provides subordinates with greater job satisfaction by giving them more say in decision-making, which affects their work. · Subordinates may have a better knowledge of local conditions affecting their area of work. This should allow them to make more informed, well-judged
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choices. · Delegation should allow greater flexibility and a quicker response to changes. If problems do not have to be referred to senior managers, decision-making will be quicker. Since decisions are quicker, they are easier to change in the light of unforeseen circumstances which may arise. · By allowing delegated authority, management at middle and junior levels are groomed to take-over higher positions. They are given the experience of decision making when carrying out delegated tasks. Delegation is therefore important for management development.

Delayered structure Delayering involves a business reducing its staff. The cuts are directed at particular levels of a business, such as managerial posts. Delayering involves removing some of these layers. This gives a flatter structure. Delayering is likely to play a major role in a policy of decentralisation as the removal of management layers allows authority for decision making to be shifted to a lower level in the organisation. Advantages: · The savings made from laying off expensive managers. It may also lead to better communication and a better motivated staff if they are empowered and allowed to make their own decisions. · However, remaining managers may become demoralised after delayering. Also staff may become overburdened as they have to do more work. Fewer layers may also mean less chance of promotion.

Management style Management style refers to the approach that an organisation takes in setting objectives for its employees and the way it manages relations between superiors and subordinates. Management or leadership styles can be categorised as:

Autocratic: A manager that adopts an autocratic management style takes entire responsibility for decisions and, having set objectives and allocated tasks to employees, expects them to be carried out exactly as specified. Employees are told exactly what, how and when work must be started and finished. It is the kind of management style often associated with a corporate culture centred almost exclusively around production. Power is focused at the top, and the centralised decision making is geared to getting the goods out of the factory and to customers. Little regard is paid to any non-monetary needs of employees; they are not consulted or involved in decision making.

Democratic: A democratic management style seeks to involve employees in the decision-making process, either by consulting them directly or through their representatives. This approach reflects a corporate culture which is more human resource centred and recognises the organisational benefits from meeting its employees non-monetary needs - such as a need for job satisfaction and a sense of belonging. A consultative approach is particularly important if an organisation is planning to change product design or working conditions, methods and practices.

Laissez-faire style: This style gives people complete freedom to organise and carry out their work. It is a very person centred approach. A laissez-faire approach may still impose some constraints, such as completion dates for certain key tasks or the earliest and latest arrival times for a flexible hours working day. There is no formal structure for decision making as decisions are taken by a variety of processes depending upon the nature of the problem, the opportunity to be explored and the individuals involved.

Consultative style: Leaders consult with

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